App dependencies

The main reason that apps fail to build properly is because Streamlit Community Cloud can't find your dependencies! There are two kinds of dependencies your app might have: Python dependencies and external dependencies. Python dependencies are other Python packages (just like Streamlit!) that you import into you script. External dependencies are less common, but they include any other software your script needs to function properly. Since Streamlit Community Cloud runs on Linux, these will be Linux dependencies installed with apt-get outside the Python environment.

For your dependencies to be installed correctly, make sure you:

  1. Add a requirements file for Python dependencies.
  2. (optional) Add a packages.txt file to manage any external dependencies.


Python requirements files should be placed either in the root of your repository or in the same directory as your Streamlit app.

With each import statement in your script, you are bringing in a Python dependency. You need to tell Streamlit Community Cloud how to install those dependencies through a Python package manager. We recommend using a requirements.txt which is based on pip.

You should not include built-in Python libraries like math or random in your requirements.txt file. These are a part of Python and aren't installed separately. Also, Streamlit Community Cloud has streamlit installed by default. You don't strictly need to include streamlit unless you want to pin or restrict the version. If you deploy an app without a requirements.txt file, your app will run in an environment with just streamlit (and its dependencies) installed.

If you have a script like the following, no extra dependencies would be needed since pandas and numpy are installed as direct dependencies of streamlit. Similarly, math and random are built into Python.

import streamlit as st import pandas as pd import numpy as np import math import random st.write('Hi!')

However, a valid requirements.txt file would be:

streamlit pandas numpy

Alternatively, if you needed to specify certain versions, another valid example would be:

streamlit==1.24.1 pandas>2.0 numpy<=1.25.1

In the above example, streamlit is pinned to version 1.24.1, pandas must be strictly greater than version 2.0, and numpy must be at-or-below version 1.25.1. Each line in your requirements.txt file is effectively what you would like to pip install into your cloud environment.



We recommend that you use the latest version of Streamlit to ensure full Streamlit Community Cloud functionality. Be sure to take note of Streamlit's current requirements for package compatibility when planning your environment, especially protobuf>=3.20,<5.

If you pin streamlit below 1.20.0, you may experience unexpected results if you've pinned any dependencies of altair. If streamlit is installed below version 1.20.0, altair<5 will be reinstalled on top of your environment for compatibility reasons. When this happens all of altair's dependencies will be updated.

There are other Python package managers besides pip. If you want to consider alternatives to using a requirements.txt file, Streamlit Community Cloud will look for other Python dependency managers to use in the order below. Streamlit will stop and install the first dependency file found.

Recognized FilenamePython Package Manager


You should only use one requirements file for your app. If you include more than one (e.g. requirements.txt and Pipfile), only the first file encountered will be used as described above. Additionally, Streamlit will first look in the directory of your Streamlit app; however, if no requirements file is found, Streamlit will then look at the root of the repo.

For many apps, a packages.txt file is not required. However, if your script requires any software to be installed that is not a Python package, then you will need a packages.txt file. Streamlit Community Cloud is built on Debian Linux. Anything you would like to apt-get install needs to go in your packages.txt file.

If packages.txt exists in the root directory of your repository we automatically detect it, parse it, and install the listed packages. You can read more about apt-get in Linux documentation.

Add apt-get dependencies to packages.txt — one package name per line. For example, mysqlclient is a Python package which requires additional software be installed to function. A valid packages.txt file to enable mysqlclient would be:

build-essential pkg-config default-libmysqlclient-dev

Still have questions?

Our forums are full of helpful information and Streamlit experts.